Karakteristik Pengeringan Lapisan Tipis Kunyit (Curcuma domestica VAL) Menggunakan Pengering Tipe Tray Dryer.

Deni Setio Hadi, Mustaqimah Mustaqimah, Raida Agustina

Abstract


Abstrak. Kunyit (Curcuma domestica VAL) adalah tanaman rimpang yang sangat populer sebagai rempah-rempah dan bahan obat, pemanfaatan kunyit dapat berupa kunyit segar,  kunyit kering, dan bubuk kunyit. Kunyit kering dapat memperpanjang masa simpan dan mempermudah pengemasan. Salah satu alat pengering yang dapat digunakan untuk mengeringkan kunyit adalah tray dryer. Penelitian ini menggunakan irisan kunyit sebanyak 4,5 kg, kemudian dikeringkan pada setiap variasi suhu yaitu 35ºC, 45ºC dan 55ºC. Perhitungan massa kunyit diukur tiap 30 menit sekali sampai bahan mencapai kadar air 5%. Parameter penelitian meliputi distribusi suhu, kelembaban udara, kecepatan aliran udara, penurunan bobot kunyit, kadar air, laju pengeringan, rendeman, kadar protein, dan uji diskriminatif serta uji hedonik terhadap warna, aroma dan tekstur. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu pengeringan maka semakin cepat proses pengeringan berlangsung. Pengeringan kunyit pada suhu 35ºC, 45ºC, 55ºC selama 390 menit, 270 menit dan 210 menit. Kelembaban relatif disetiap suhu yaitu 35ºC rata-rata sebesar 63,36%, suhu 45ºC sebesar 63,30% dan suhu 55ºC sebesar 62,25%. Rata-rata penurunan kadar air pada variasi suhu 35ºC, 45ºC dan 55ºC  sebesar 80,81% sehingga rata-rata kadar air akhir kunyit kering didapatkan sebesar 4,39%, dimana telah memenuhi  standar SNI untuk kadar air kunyit kering. Laju pengeringan tercepat pada suhu 55ºC rata-rata sebesar 2,38 %bk/menit. Rendemen tertinggi  bubuk kunyit terdapat pada suhu 35ºC yaitu sebesar 12,0%. Protein bubuk kunyit tertinggi pada suhu 55ºC sebesar 5,21%. Berdasarkan uji diskriminatif, yang mendekati warna dan aroma bubuk kunyit komersil adalah bubuk kunyit yang dikeringkan pada suhu 45ºC dengan skor 2 (sama). Berdasarkan hasil uji organoleptik hedonik panelis lebih menyukai warna bubuk kunyit yang dikeringkan pada suhu 45ºC dengan skor 5 (sangat suka) bila dibandingkan dengan warna bubuk kunyit yang dikeringkan pada suhu 35ºC dan 55ºC, dimana panelis hanya memberikan skor 4 (suka).

Keywords: Drying Turmerics, Turmeric Powder, Tray Dryer.

Abstract. Turmeric (Curcuma domestica VAL) Is a rhizome plant that is very popular as a spice and medicinal ingredient, the use of turmeric can be in the form of fresh turmeric, dried turmeric, and turmeric powder. Dry turmeric can extend its shelf life and simplify packaging. One dryer that can be used to dry turmeric is a tray dryer. This study used slices of turmeric as much as 4.5 kg, then dried at each temperature variation of 35ºC, 45ºC, and 55ºC. The calculation of turmeric mass is measured once every 30 minutes until the material reaches 5% water content. Research parameters include temperature distribution, air humidity, airflow velocity, reduction of turmeric weight, water content, drying rate, yield, protein content, and discriminatory test as well as a hedonic test on color, scent, and texture. The results of the study indicate that the higher the drying temperature, the faster the drying process will take place. Drying turmeric at 35ºC, 45ºC, 55ºC for 390 minutes, 270 minutes and 210 minutes. The relative humidity at each temperature is 35ºC at an averaging of 63.36%, a temperature of 45ºC at 63.30% and a temperature of 55ºC at 62.25%. The averaging decrease in water content at a temperature variation of 35ºC, 45ºC, and 55ºC was 80.81% so that the averaging water content of dried turmeric was obtained at 4.39%, which met the SNI standard for dry turmeric water content. The fastest drying rate at 55ºC averaging 2.38% bk/min. The highest yield of turmeric powder is at 35ºC, which is 12.0%. Turmeric powder is the highest protein at a temperature of 55ºC of 5.21%. Based on the discriminatory test, which approaches the color and scent of commercial turmeric powder is turmeric powder which is dried at 45ºC with a score of 2 (the same). Based on the organoleptic test results, panelists prefer the color of turmeric powder dried at a temperature of 45ºC with a score of 5 (very like) when compared to the color of turmeric powder dried at temperatures of 35ºC and 55ºC, where the panelists only gave a score of 4 (like).


Keywords


Pengeringan Kunyit; Bubuk Kunyit; Tray Dryer; Drying Turmerics; Turmeric Powder; Tray Dryer

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References


Adha, F. 2017. Kajian karakteristis pengeringan lapisan tipis kunyit (Curcuma domestica Val.) dengan menggunakan tray dryer. Skripsi. Teknik Pertanian. Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Syiah Kuala. BandaAceh.

AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington DC.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2005. SNI 01-70852005 Standar Simplisia Kunir.

Kusumaningrum, H, P, Kusdiyantini, E, Pujiyanto, S. 2015. Kualitas simplisia tanaman biofarmaka Curcuma domestica Val. setelah proses pemanasan pada suhu dan waktu bervariasi. Bioma Publishing. Depok.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/jimfp.v4i4.12725

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E-ISSN: 2614-6053 2615-2878 Statistic Indexing | Citation


Alamat Tim Redaksi:
Fakultas Pertanian,Universitas Syiah Kuala
Jl. Tgk. Hasan Krueng Kalee No. 3, Kopelma Darussalam,
Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.
Email:jimfp@unsyiah.ac.id